11 feb. 2010

Fragment tradus din Originea si faptele gotilor/getilor, Iordanes

Then Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, made alliance with the Goths and took to wife Medopa, the daughter of King Gudila, so that he might render the kingdom of Macedon more secure by the help of this marriage. It was at this time, as the historian Dio relates, that Philip, suffering from need of money, determined to lead out his forces and sack Odessus, a city of Moesia, which was then subject to the Goths by reason of the neighboring city of Tomi. Thereupon those priests of the Goths that are called the Holy Men suddenly opened the gates of Odessus and came forth to meet them. They bore harps and were clad in snowy robes, and chanted in suppliant strains to the gods of their fathers that they might be propitious and repel the Macedonians. When the Macedonians saw them coming with such confidence to meet them, they were astonished and, so to speak, the armed were terrified by the unarmed. Straightway they broke the line they had formed for battle and not only refrained from destroying the city, but even gave back those whom they had captured outside by right of war. Then they made a truce and returned to their own country.

(66) After a long time Sitalces, a famous leader of the Goths, remembering this treacherous attempt, gathered a hundred and fifty thousand men and made war upon the Athenians, fighting against Perdiccas, King of Macedon. This Perdiccas had been left by Alexander as his successor to rule Athens by hereditary right, when he drank his destruction at Babylon through the treachery of an attendant. The Goths engaged in a great battle with him and proved themselves to be the stronger. Thus in return for the wrong which the Macedonians had long before committed in Moesia, the Goths overran Greece and laid waste the whole of Macedonia.

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XI (67) Then when Buruista was king of the Goths, Dicineus came to Gothia at the time when Sulla ruled the Romans. Buruista received Dicineus and gave him almost royal power. It was by his advice the Goths ravaged the lands of the Germans, which the Franks now possess. (68) Then came Caesar, the first of all the Romans to assume imperial power and to subdue almost the whole world, who conquered all kingdoms and even seized islands lying beyond our world, reposing in the bosom of Ocean. He made tributary to the Romans those that knew not the Roman name even by hearsay, and yet was unable to prevail against the Goths, despite his frequent attempts. Soon Gaius Tiberius reigned as third emperor of the Romans, and yet the Goths continued in their kingdom unharmed. (69) Their safety, their advantage, their one hope lay in this, that whatever their counsellor Dicineus advised should by all means be done; and they judged it expedient that they should labor for its accomplishment. And when he saw that their minds were obedient to him in all things and that they had natural ability, he taught them almost the whole of philosophy, for he was a skilled master of this subject. Thus by teaching them ethics he restrained their barbarous customs; by imparting a knowledge of physics he made them live naturally under laws of their own, which they possess in written form to this day and call belagines. He taught them logic and made them skilled in reasoning beyond all other races; he showed them practical knowledge and so persuaded them to abound in good works. By demonstrating theoretical knowledge he urged them to contemplate the twelve signs and the courses of the planets passing through them, and the whole of astronomy. He told them how the disc of the moon gains increase or suffers loss, and showed them how much the fiery globe of the sun exceeds in size our earthly planet. He explained the names of the three hundred and forty-six stars and told through what signs in the arching vault of the heavens they glide swiftly from their rising to their setting. (70) Think, I pray you, what pleasure it was for these brave men, when for a little space they had leisure from warfare, to be instructed in the teachings of philosophy! You might have seen one scanning the position of the heavens and another investigating the nature of plants and bushes. Here stood one who studied the waxing and waning of the moon, while still another regarded the labors of the sun and observed how those bodies which were hastening to go toward the east are whirled around and borne back to the west by the rotation of the heavens. When they had learned the reason, they were at rest. (71) These and various other matters Dicineus taught the Goths in his wisdom and gained marvellous repute among them, so that he ruled not only the common men but their kings. He chose from among them those that were at that time of noblest birth and superior wisdom and taught them theology, bidding them worship certain divinities and holy places. He gave the name of Pilleati to the priests he ordained, I suppose because they offered sacrifice having their heads covered with tiaras, which we otherwise call pillei. (72) But he bade them call the rest of their race Capillati. This name the Goths accepted and prized highly, and they retain it to this day in their songs.

(73) After the death of Dicineus, they held Comosicus in almost equal honor, because he was not inferior in knowledge. By reason of his wisdom he was accounted their priest and king, and he judged the people with the greatest uprightness.

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XII When he too had departed from human affairs, Coryllus ascended the throne as king of the Goths and for forty years ruled his people in Dacia. I mean ancient Dacia, which the race of the Gepidae now possess. (74) This country lies across the Danube within sight of Moesia, and is surrounded by a crown of mountains. It has only two ways of access, one by way of the Boutae and the other by the Tapae. This Gothia, which our ancestors called Dacia and now, as I have said, is called Gepidia, was then bounded on the east by the Roxolani, on the west by the Iazyges, on the north by the Sarmatians and Basternae and on the south by the river Danube. The Iazyges are separated from the Roxolani by the Aluta river only.

(75) And since mention has been made of the Danube, I think it not out of place to make brief notice of so excellent a stream. Rising in the fields of the Alamanni, it receives sixty streams which flow into it here and there in the twelve hundred miles from its source to its mouths in the Pontus, resembling a spine inwoven with ribs like a basket. It is indeed a most vast river. In the language of the Bessi it is called the Hister, and it has profound waters in its channel to a depth of quite two hundred feet. This stream surpasses in size all other rivers, except the Nile. Let this much suffice for the Danube. But let us now with the Lord's help return to the subject from which we have digressed.

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XIII (76) Now after a long time, in the reign of the Emperor Domitian, the Goths, through fear of his avarice, broke the truce they had long observed under other emperors. They laid waste the bank of the Danube, so long held by the Roman Empire, and slew the soldiers and their generals. Oppius Sabinus was then in command of that province, succeeding Agrippa, while Dorpaneus held command over the Goths. Thereupon the Goths made war and conquered the Romans, cut off the head of Oppius Sabinus, and invaded and boldly plundered many castles and cities belonging to the Emperor. (77) In this plight of his countrymen Domitian hastened with all his might to Illyricum, bringing with him the troops of almost the entire empire. He sent Fuscus before him as his general with picked soldiers. Then joining boats together like a bridge, he made his soldiers cross the river Danube above the army of Dorpaneus. (78) But the Goths were on the alert. They took up arms and presently overwhelmed the Romans in the first encounter. They slew Fuscus, the commander, and plundered the soldiers' camp of its treasure. And because of the great victory they had won in this region, they thereafter called their leaders, by whose good fortune they seemed to have conquered, not mere men, but demigods, that is Ansis. Their genealogy I shall run through briefly, telling the lineage of each and the beginning and the end of this line. And do thou, O reader, hear me without repining; for I speak truly.

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XIV (79) Now the first of these heroes, as they themselves relate in their legends, was Gapt, who begat Hulmul. And Hulmul begat Augis; and Augis begat him who was called Amal, from whom the name of the Amali comes. This Amal begat Hisarnis. Hisarnis moreover begat Ostrogotha, and Ostrogotha begat Hunuil, and Hunuil likewise begat Athal. Athal begat Achiulf and Oduulf. Now Achiulf begat Ansila and Ediulf, Vultuulf and Hermanaric. And Vultuulf begat Valaravans and Valaravans begat Vinitharius. Vinitharius moreover begat Vandalarius; (80) Vandalarius begat Thiudimer and Valamir and Vidimer; and Thiudimer begat Theodoric. Theodoric begat Amalasuentha; Amalasuentha bore Athalaric and Mathesuentha to her husband Eutharic, whose race was thus joined to hers in kinship. (81) For the aforesaid Hermanaric, the son of Achiulf, begat Hunimund, and Hunimund begat Thorismud. Now Thorismud begat Beremud, Beremud begat Veteric, and Veteric likewise begat Eutharic, who married Amalasuentha and begat Athalaric and Mathesuentha. Athalaric died in the years of his childhood, and Mathesuentha married Vitiges, to whom she bore no child. Both of them were taken together by Belisarius to Constantinople. When Vitiges passed from human affairs, Germanus the patrician, a cousin of the Emperor Justinian, took Mathesuentha in marriage and made her a Patrician Ordinary. And of her he begat a son, also called Germanus. But upon the death of Germanus, she determined to remain a widow. Now how and in what wise the kingdom of the Amali was overthrown we shall keep to tell in its proper place, if the Lord help us.

(65) Dupa aceea, Filip, tatal lui Alexandru cel Mare, a incheiat o alianta cu gotii si a luat de sotie pe Medopa, fiica regelui Gudila, intarind, astfel, pozitia regatului Macedoniei. In aceasta perioada, dupa istoricul Dio, Filip, avand nevoie de bani, s-a hotarat sa jefuiasca orasul Odessus (in prezent Varna, n.a.), din Moesia, care era supus gotilor, fiind sub influenta apropiatului Tomi (-s, alt "Tomi" nefiind in Moesia, adica Dobrogea, n.a.). Atunci acei preoti ai gotilor care erau numiti sfinti, au deschis brusc portile Odessusului si au iesit in intampinarea lor. Purtau harpe si erau imbracati in robe ca neaua si se rugau zeilor stramosilor lor sa aiba grija de ei si sa-i goneasca pe macedoneni. Cand macedonenii i-au vazut venind catre ei cu atata incredere, au fost uluiti, putand spune ca cei inarmati au fost inspaimantati de cei neinarmati. Imediat au rupt randurile si nu numai ca nu au atacat orasul, dar au eliberat si prizonierii capturati in zona. Dupa aceea au facut un armistitiu si s-au intors in tara lor.

(66) Dupa mult timp Sitalces, un lider faimos al gotilor, aducandu-si aminte de aceasta tradare, a adunat 150.000 de oameni si a pornit razboi cu atenieni, luptand cu Perdiccas, regele macedonean. Acest Perdiccas fusese numit de Alexandru ca succesor al sau la carma Atenei, prin drept ereditar, cand a fost otravit in Babilon de un insotitor. Gotii, dupa o lupta de proportii, l-au invins. Astfel, ca rasplata pentru tradarea macedonenilor din Moesia, gotii au cotropit toata Grecia si au lasat Macedonia in ruine.

XI Dupa aceea, cand Buruista a fost regele gotilor, Dicineus a venit in Gotia, in perioada domniei asupra romanilor a lui Sulla. Buruista l-a primit pe Dicineus si i-a dat puteri aproape regale. La sfatul sau gotii au ravasit teritoriul germanilor, pe care-l detin acum francii. (68) Dupa aceea a fost Cezar, cel dintai dintre romani care si-a atribuit putere imperiala si a cucerit aproape toata lumea, cel care a cucerit toate regatele si care a inrobit si insule ce se afla in afara lumii noastre, odihnindu-se in bratele oceanului. I-a facut sa plateasca tribut Romei si pe cei care nici macar nu auzisera de numele de roman, si totusi nu a fost capabil sa prevaleze impotriva gotilor, in ciuda deselor sale incercari. In scurt timp, Gaius Tiberius a domnit ca al treilea imparat al romanilor, insa gotii au trait linistiti in regatul lor. (69) Siguranta lor, avantajul lor, speranta lor se baza pe urmatorul aspect, orice spunea consilierul Dicineus trebuia dus prin orice mijloc la indeplinire; si considerau esentiala punerea in aplicare a sfaturilor sale. Si cand el a vazut ca mintile lor sunt obediente lui si ca ei au abilitati naturale, el i-a invatat aproape toata filosofia, pentru ca era un mare filosof. Astfel, invatandu-i etica, a inabusit obiceiurile lor barbare; impartind o cunostere a fizicii i-a facut sa traiasca in armonie cu natura, dupa propriile legi, pe care ei le poseda in forma scrisa si astazi si le numesc belagine. I-a invatat logica si i-a ridicat la un nivel al ratiunii superior tuturor celorlalte rase; le-a dat cunostinte practice si astfel i-a impins sa abunde in lucruri de calitate. Demonstrand cunostinte teoretice i-a indemnat sa contempleze cele douasprezece semne si traseele planetelor care trec prin ele, si toata astronomia. Le-a spus cum creste sau scade discul lunii, si le-a aratat cat de mult globul de foc al soarelui depaseste in dimensiuni planeta noastra pamanteana. A explicat numele celor trei sute patruzeci si sase de stele si a descris prin ce semne trec repede prin bolta arcuita a cerului acestea, de la rasarit la apus. (70) Ganditi-va, rogu-va, ce placere a fost pentru acesti oameni bravi, cand in scurtele pauze dintre razboaie, au fost invatati filosofie! Puteai sa vezi pe unul scrutand cu privirea pozitia cerurilor si altul investigand natura plantelor si tufelor. Intr-un loc unul studia cresterea si descresterea lunii, in timp ce altul privea miscarile soarelui si observa cum corpurile care se grabeau catre est sunt invartite si renascute catre vest de rotatia cerurilor. Cand au inteles ratiunea lucrurilor, au fost multumiti. (71) Acestea si variate alte chestiuni i-a invatat Dicineu pe goti in intelepciunea sa si a castigat un renume extraordinar printre ei, incat nu conducea doar pe oamenii obisnuiti, ci si pe regii lor. A ales dintre ei pe cei care erau atunci de vita cea mai nobila si cu inteligenta superioara si i-a invatat teologie, poruncindu-le sa se inchine anumitor divinitati si locuri sfinte. El a dat numele de Pilleati preotilor pe care i-a hirotonisit, banuiesc din cauza ca ei faceau sacrificii avand capetele acoperite cu tiare, pe care noi altfel le numim pillei. (72) Dar le-a ordonat sa spuna restului spitei lor Capillati. Acesta este numele pe care gotii l-au acceptat si l-au pretuit si il pastreaza si in ziua de azi in cantecele lor.

(73) Dupa moartea lui Dicineus, ei l-au onorat aproape la fel pe Comosicus, pentru ca era la fel de intelept. De aceea el a fost numit preotul si regele lor, si a judecat oamenii cu cea mai mare corectitudine.

XII Cand si el a plecat din cele lumesti, Coryllus a urcat pe tron ca rege al gotilor si pentru patruzeci de ani a domnit peste ai sai in Dacia. Ma refer la stravechea Dacie, cea pe care o stapanesc acum gepizii (trib gotic, deci..., n.a.). (74) Aceasta tara se intinde dupa Dunare, pana aproape de Moesia si este inconjurata de o coroana de munti. Are doar doua cai de acces, una prin Boutae, iar alta prin Tapae. Aceasta Gotia, pe care stramosii nostri o numeau Dacia si acum, dupa cum am zis, este numita Gepidia, era atunci marginita la est de roxolani, la vest de iazigi, la nord de sarmati si bastarni si la sud de Dunare. Iazigii erau separati de roxolani (ambele populatii de origine sarmata, cei care vorbeau limba getilor, n.a.), doar de raul Aluta.

(75) Si pentru ca am mentionat Dunarea, cred ca este oportun sa prezentam pe scurt acest excelent curs de apa. Pornind din campiile alamannilor, primeste saizeci de rauri care curg in el si pe parcursul celor o mie doua sute de mile pe care le parcurge de la izvor, pana la varsare in Pont, seamana cu o sira intretesuta cu coaste ca un cos. Este intr-adevar un rau foarte vast. In limba bessilor este numit Hister si are ape adanci de pana la 65-70 de metri. Acest curs de apa surclaseaza ca marime toate celelalte rauri, cu exceptia Nilului. Ajunge cat am vorbit despre Dunare. Sa ne intoarcem acum, cu ajutorul lui Dumnezeu, la subiectul de la care am facut o digresiune.

XIII (76) Acum, dupa mult timp, in timpul domniei lui Domitian, gotii, temandu-se de avaritia acestuia, au rupt armistitiul pe care-l respectasera pe parcursul domniilor celorlalti imparati. Au trecut prin sabie malul Dunarii, apartinand de atata timp imperiului roman, ucigand soldatii si generalii. Oppius Sabina era la comanda acelei provincii, urmandu-i lui Agrippa, in timp ce Dorpaneus era liderul gotilor. Asadar gotii s-au luptat si i-au infrant pe romani, au taiat capul lui Oppius Sabinus si au invadat si au pradat curajos multe castele si orase apartinand imparatului. (77) Data fiind situatia in care se aflau conationalii sai, Domitian s-a grabit din rasputeri catre Iliria, aducand cu el trupe din aproape intreg imperiul. L-a trimis pe Fuscus inainte, ca general al sau, cu soldati alesi. Dupa aceea, unind barcile ca un pod, si-a trecut soldatii Dunarea, deasupra pozitiei armatei lui Dorpaneus (nu ma mai pot abtine, Dorpaneus/Diurpaneus, alias Decebal, n.a.). (78) Dar gotii prinsesera de veste. S-au inarmat si indata i-au coplesit pe romani in prima lupta. L-au omorat pe Fuscus, comandantul, si au jefuit tabara romanilor. Si, din cauza acestei mari victorii pe care au castigat-o in aceasta regiune, ei au si-au numit, dupa aceea, liderii favorizati de sorti, datorita carora prevalasera, nu oameni obisnuiti, ci semizei, adica Ansis. Genealogia lor o voi parcurge rapid, mentionand spita fiecaruia si inceputul si sfarsitul acestei linii ereditare. Si tu, cititorule, asculta-ma fara a te impotrivi; pentru ca vorbesc adevarat.

XIV (79) Primul dintre acesti eroi, dupa cum ei insisi povestesc in legendele lor, a fost Gapt, urmasul sau fiind Hulmul. Si Hulmul a fost urmat de Augis; si Augis a avut drept odrasla pe cel care a fost numit Amal, de la care vine numele Amalilor. Urmasul lui Amal a fost Hisarnis. Copilul lui Hisarnis a fost Ostrogotha, iar acesta l-a avut ca urmas pe Hunuil, si Hunuil pe Athal. Athal i-a avut ca urmasi pe Achiulf si Oduulf. Achiulf i-a avut pe Ansila si Ediulf, Vultuulf si Hermanaric. Si Vultuulf l-a avut ca succesor pe Valaravans si Valaravans pe Vinitharius. Vinitharius pe Vandalarius; (80) Vandalarius pe Thiudimer si Valamir si Vidimer; si Thiudimer pe Theodoric. Theodoric pe Amalasuentha; Amalasuentha i-a nascut Athalaric si Mathesuentha, tatal lor fiind Eutharic, el fiind inrudit cu Amalasuentha. (81) Pentru ca mai sus mentionatul Hermanaric, fiul lui Achiulf, l-a avut ca mostenitor pe Hunimund, iar Hunimund pe Thorismud. Acum Thorismud a avut drept fiu pe Beremud, Beremud pe Veteric, Veteric pe Eutharic, care s-a casatorit cu Amalasuentha si i-a avut pe Athalaric si Mathesuentha. Athalaric a murit un copilarie si Mathesuentha s-a maritat cu Vitiges, cu care nu facut niciun copil. Amandoi au fost luati de Belisarius la Constantinopol. Cand Vitiges a murit, Germanus patricianul, un var al imparatului Iustinian, s-a casatorit cu Mathesuentha si inclus-o, astfel, in casta patricienilor. Ea a dat nastere unui baiat numit Germanus. Dupa moartea sotului, ea a decis sa ramana vaduva. Cum a decazut regatul amalilor vom spune la momentul potrivit, daca ne ajuta Dumnezeu.

Sursa: people.ucalgary.ca

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