1) German Grammar
Grimm's famous Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar) was the outcome of his purely philological work. The labors of past generations from the humanists onwards resulted in an enormous collection of materials in the form of text-editions, dictionaries, and grammars, although most of it was uncritical and untrustworthy. Something had even been done in the way of the comparison and determination of general laws, and the concept of a comparative Germanic grammar had been clearly grasped by the illustrious Englishman George Hickes
by the beginning of the 18th century in his Thesaurus. Ten Kate in Holland had afterwards made valuable contributions to the history and comparison of the Germanic languages. Even Grimm himself did not at first intend to include all the languages in his Grammar, but he soon found that Old High German
, and that the later stages of German could not be understood without the help of other West Germanic
varieties including English
, and that the rich literature of Scandinavia could not be ignored either. The first edition of the first part of the Grammar (which appeared in 1819), and is now extremely rare, treated of the inflections of all these languages, and included a general introduction, in which he vindicated the importance of an historical study of the German language against the a priori
, quasi-philosophical methods then in vogue.
In 1822 this volume appeared in a second edition (really a new work, for, as Grimm himself says in the preface, it cost him little reflection to mow down the first crop to the ground). The wide distance between the two stages of Grimm's development in these two editions is significantly shown by the fact that while the first edition gives only the inflections, in the second volume phonology takes up no fewer than 600 pages, more than half of the whole volume. Grimm had, at last, awakened to the full conviction that all sound philology must be based on rigorous adhesion to the laws of sound change
, and he never afterwards swerved from this principle, which gave to all his investigations, even in their boldest flights, that iron-bound consistency, and that force of conviction which distinguishes science from dilettanteism. Prior to Grimm's time, philology was nothing but a more or less laborious and conscientious dilettanteism, with occasional flashes of scientific inspiration.
O sa traduc cateva idei pe care le-am boldat in textul de mai sus: el a descoperit ca vechea limba germana avea ca fundament limba gota; Grimm se convinsese, in cele din urma, ca filologia sunetelor trebuie sa fie bazata pe o adeziune riguroasa la legile schimbarii sunetelor si niciodata dupa aceea nu s-a mai indepartat de acest principiu, care i-a dat tuturor investigatiilor, chiar si in cele mai indraznete cercetari, o consistenta de fier si forta convingerilor, care disting stiinta de diletantism.
2) German Dictionary
Grimm's monumental German dictionary
, (Deutsches Wörterbuch
, or literally German Dictionary), remains a standard work of reference to the present day.
The dictionary was undertaken on so large a scale as to make it impossible for him and his brother to complete it themselves. The dictionary, as far as it was worked on by Grimm himself, has been described as a collection of disconnected antiquarian essays of high value.
Pe scurt, printre altele si lingvistul a scris un dictionar al limbii germane care este si acum the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.... si remains a standard work of reference to the present day, adica fundamental pentru limba germana.
3) History of the German Language (Istoria limbii germane)
Of all his more general works the boldest and most far-reaching was his Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (History of the German Language), in which the linguistic elements are emphasized. The subject of the work is the history which lies hidden in the words of the German language (the oldest natural history of the Teutonic tribes determined by means of language). For this purpose he laboriously collected the scattered words and allusions found in classical writers, and endeavoured to determine the relationship between the German language and those of the Getae, Tifracians, Scythians, and many other nations whose languages were at the time known only through doubtfully identified, often extremely corrupted remains preserved by Greek and Latin authors. Grimm's results have been greatly modified by the wider range of comparison and improved methods of investigation which now characterize linguistics, and many of the questions raised by him will probably forever remain obscure, but his book's influence has been profound.Cu o mica paranteza (tIFracians sa fie oare tHracians, adica tracii, nah, e clar ca tifracianii sunt un alt neam, orice confuzie intre acestia si barbarii care dansau si se veseleau cand crapa vreunul de-al lor fiind o barbarie mai mare chiar decat obiceiurile alea ingrozitoare), Jacob Grimm a facut legatura intre limba germana si limba getilor, tracilor sau tifracianilor, scitilor si altele, dar datorita surselor dubioase din care s-a inspirat multe dintre intrebarile puse de el vor ramane probabil pe vecie obscure, insa influenta cartii sale a fost profunda. Unde am mai auzit eu cuvantul asta..., ah da, recent americanii si nu numai, au desoperit o cultura obscura si primara se pare, pentru ca, nu de alta, e cea mai veche. Revenind la citatul initial despre autorul german "The opinion, Gotthi = Getae, has received in recent times the weighty support of Jacob Grimm on philological grounds;" (chiar cu toata problema legata de sursele "incomplete" si "modificate" pe care le-a studiat; cand e vorba sa identificam getii cu gotii sursele respective nu sunt bune, daca e vorba sa stabilim orice alt adevar istoric, sursele respective, antice latine si grecesti, sunt foarte bune), cum se poate ca autorul primei cercetari filologice cu caracter stiintific, parintele gramaticii germane, autorul dictionarului de referinta al limbii germane sa se fi inselat. Poate nu s-a inselat.
Surse de inspiratie sau "bibliografie": www.archive.org, www.absoluteastronomy.com, wikipedia.org