3 mar. 2010

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm - getii sau gotii sau germanii

(n.a. Pentru ca peste 80% din vizitatorii blogului nu se uita in arhiva blogului, profit si scot de la naftalina niste idei de anul trecut.)

Cautand eu, asa, de dimineata, niste referinte despre studiul doamnei Maria Crisan asupra Codexului Argenteus si negasindu-le, am dat in schimb de doua nume interesante: Shakespeare si Grimm. Primul pomenit ca facand, in calitate de profan intr-ale lingvisticii, o confuzie impardonabila de genul: " I am here with thee and thy goats, as the most capricious poet, honest Ovid, was among the Goths " {As Yuu Like It, iii. 3). Adica Ovidiu avea domiciliul pe la goti. Care Ovidiu? Stiti voi, cel cu statuia din piata cu acelasi nume din Constanta, Romania. Al doilea pomenit astfel: The opinion, Gotthi = Getae, has received in recent times the weighty support of Jacob Grimm on philological grounds (ideea gotii=getii, a primit recent suportul puternic, pe baza filologica, al lui Jacob Grimm); cf. Gesch. der Dentschen Sprache, cc. 9 and 13. Kratit, Kirchen- gesch., etc., follows Grimm, and adduces evidence from history, common religious ideas, customs, etc. Grimm, hmm, cred ca unul dintre fratii care scriau povestioare. Am cautat febril si pe wikipedia in romaneste si banuielile mele ca baiatul era doar un folclorist au fost intarite. Iata si textul - Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (n. Hanau, 4 ianuarie 1785 — d. Berlin, 20 septembrie 1863) a fost un cunoscut lingvist, folclorist şi scriitor german. Este cunoscut mai ales pentru cele două volume de poveşti pe motive populare germane, pe care le-a scris împreună cu fratele său Wilhelm Grimm. Jacob Grimm este fondatorul şcolii mitologice în folcloristică şi autorul unui important studiu întitulat Mitologia germană (2 vol., 1835). A mai scris Gramatica limbii germane (1819), Dicţionarul limbii germane (împreună cu Wilhelm Grimm, neterminat) ş.a. Totusi, neavand ce face, am cautat si referintele in engleza, limba aia pe care orice papuas trebuie sa o cunoasca si, spre stupoarea mea, am gasit asa:

1) German Grammar


Grimm's famous Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar) was the outcome of his purely philological work. The labors of past generations from the humanists onwards resulted in an enormous collection of materials in the form of text-editions, dictionaries, and grammars, although most of it was uncritical and untrustworthy. Something had even been done in the way of the comparison and determination of general laws, and the concept of a comparative Germanic grammar had been clearly grasped by the illustrious Englishman George Hickes by the beginning of the 18th century in his Thesaurus. Ten Kate in Holland had afterwards made valuable contributions to the history and comparison of the Germanic languages. Even Grimm himself did not at first intend to include all the languages in his Grammar, but he soon found that Old High German postulated Gothic, and that the later stages of German could not be understood without the help of other West Germanic varieties including English, and that the rich literature of Scandinavia could not be ignored either. The first edition of the first part of the Grammar (which appeared in 1819), and is now extremely rare, treated of the inflections of all these languages, and included a general introduction, in which he vindicated the importance of an historical study of the German language against the a priori, quasi-philosophical methods then in vogue.

In 1822 this volume appeared in a second edition (really a new work, for, as Grimm himself says in the preface, it cost him little reflection to mow down the first crop to the ground). The wide distance between the two stages of Grimm's development in these two editions is significantly shown by the fact that while the first edition gives only the inflections, in the second volume phonology takes up no fewer than 600 pages, more than half of the whole volume. Grimm had, at last, awakened to the full conviction that all sound philology must be based on rigorous adhesion to the laws of sound change, and he never afterwards swerved from this principle, which gave to all his investigations, even in their boldest flights, that iron-bound consistency, and that force of conviction which distinguishes science from dilettanteism. Prior to Grimm's time, philology was nothing but a more or less laborious and conscientious dilettanteism, with occasional flashes of scientific inspiration.

O sa traduc cateva idei pe care le-am boldat in textul de mai sus: el a descoperit ca vechea limba germana avea ca fundament limba gota; Grimm se convinsese, in cele din urma, ca filologia sunetelor trebuie sa fie bazata pe o adeziune riguroasa la legile schimbarii sunetelor si niciodata dupa aceea nu s-a mai indepartat de acest principiu, care i-a dat tuturor investigatiilor, chiar si in cele mai indraznete cercetari, o consistenta de fier si forta convingerilor, care disting stiinta de diletantism.

2) German Dictionary


Grimm's monumental German dictionary
German dictionary
The German dictionary has a history dating back to the Brothers Grimm, who started work on the first major dictionary of the German language, the Deutsches Wörterbuch in 1838. The Duden dictionary dates back to 1880, and is currently the prescriptive source for the spelling of German....

, (Deutsches Wörterbuch, or literally German Dictionary), remains a standard work of reference to the present day.

The dictionary was undertaken on so large a scale as to make it impossible for him and his brother to complete it themselves. The dictionary, as far as it was worked on by Grimm himself, has been described as a collection of disconnected antiquarian essays of high value.

Pe scurt, printre altele si lingvistul a scris un dictionar al limbii germane care este si acum the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.... si remains a standard work of reference to the present day, adica fundamental pentru limba germana.

3) History of the German Language (Istoria limbii germane)


Of all his more general works the boldest and most far-reaching was his Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (History of the German Language), in which the linguistic elements are emphasized. The subject of the work is the history which lies hidden in the words of the German language (the oldest natural history of the Teutonic tribes determined by means of language). For this purpose he laboriously collected the scattered words and allusions found in classical writers, and endeavoured to determine the relationship between the German language and those of the Getae, Tifracians, Scythians, and many other nations whose languages were at the time known only through doubtfully identified, often extremely corrupted remains preserved by Greek and Latin authors. Grimm's results have been greatly modified by the wider range of comparison and improved methods of investigation which now characterize linguistics, and many of the questions raised by him will probably forever remain obscure, but his book's influence has been profound.

Cu o mica paranteza (tIFracians sa fie oare tHracians, adica tracii, nah, e clar ca tifracianii sunt un alt neam, orice confuzie intre acestia si barbarii care dansau si se veseleau cand crapa vreunul de-al lor fiind o barbarie mai mare chiar decat obiceiurile alea ingrozitoare), Jacob Grimm a facut legatura intre limba germana si limba getilor, tracilor sau tifracianilor, scitilor si altele, dar datorita surselor dubioase din care s-a inspirat multe dintre intrebarile puse de el vor ramane probabil pe vecie obscure, insa influenta cartii sale a fost profunda. Unde am mai auzit eu cuvantul asta..., ah da, recent americanii si nu numai, au desoperit o cultura obscura si primara se pare, pentru ca, nu de alta, e cea mai veche. Revenind la citatul initial despre autorul german "The opinion, Gotthi = Getae, has received in recent times the weighty support of Jacob Grimm on philological grounds;" (chiar cu toata problema legata de sursele "incomplete" si "modificate" pe care le-a studiat; cand e vorba sa identificam getii cu gotii sursele respective nu sunt bune, daca e vorba sa stabilim orice alt adevar istoric, sursele respective, antice latine si grecesti, sunt foarte bune), cum se poate ca autorul primei cercetari filologice cu caracter stiintific, parintele gramaticii germane, autorul dictionarului de referinta al limbii germane sa se fi inselat. Poate nu s-a inselat.

Surse de inspiratie sau "bibliografie": www.archive.org, www.absoluteastronomy.com, wikipedia.org

Un comentariu:

  1. Da cu siguranta gotii sun geti; au devenit goti prin manevrele occidentalilor.De exemplu, Spania, a fost intemeiata de geti, pentru ca acum sa se vorbeasca despre intemeierea Spaniei de goti. Acelasi lucru, anume ca gotii erau geti, il spun si Carolus Lundius in "Zamolxis, primum getae legislator" precum si Iordanes. Corolus Lundius chiar spunea: "Zamolxe al nostrui". Deci in vremea lui Stefan cel Mare, un suedez, slavea pe Zamolxe si ii propunea regelui, implantarea Legilor Belagine in legislatia Sueoniei sau Sveoniei. Daca ne uitam cate toponime asemanatoare exista pe teritoriul Romaniei, ca Seulia, Sieu, Seusa, Saulia, vedem de unde povine aceasta veche denumire a Suediei. Si numele vechi a Danemarcii, Dania, provine tot de la geto-daci.

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